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The ITER Organization will host a 2-day Remote ITER Business Meeting presenting thecoming business opportunities, and the latest highlights of the Project on Wednesday 7 andThursday 8 April 2021.  In this virtual meeting, the ITER Organization presents the coming business opportunities. With six thematic sessions, experts from different areas give specific information about contracts and procurement needs in the next coming years. 1. Name of event: Remote ITER Business Meeting 2. Object: provide specific information about contracts and procurement needs in the next coming years 3. Date of event: 7-8 April 2021 4. Program  - Update of the ITER Project Status by Director General  - Procurement and Contract News  - Thematic sessions by ITER technical experts giving overview on coming business opportunities  - One-to-One meetings between interested companies and ITER experts  - Possibility to arrange Business-to-Business with other companies 5. Registration Period: 20 January - 6 April 2021 6. Linka: https://www.iter.org/ribm2021
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Aiming to operate continuously high-temperature plasma over 100 million degrees for 300 seconds by 2025 temperature plasma for 20 seconds with an ion temperature exceeding 100 million degrees.   On November 24, the KSTAR Research Center at KFE announced that in joint research with Seoul National University (SNU) and Columbia University in the United States, it succeeded in the continuous operation of plasma for 20 seconds with an ion temperature higher than 100 million degrees, which is one of the core conditions of nuclear fusion in the 2020 KSTAR Plasma Campaign.   It is an achievement to extend the eight-second plasma operation time during the 2019 KSTAR Plasma Campaign by more than two times. In its 2018 experiment, KSTAR reached a plasma ion temperature of 100 million degrees for the first time (retention time: about 1.5 seconds).   Recreating the fusion reactions of the sun, given its ultra-high temperature and density, on earth requires heating and the maintenance of ion temperatures exceeding 100 million degrees after fueling a fusion device such as KSTAR and dividing nuclei into ions and electrons to create a plasma state.    Thus far, there have been other fusion devices that have briefly managed plasma at temperatures of 100 million degrees or higher. None of them broke the barrier of maintaining the operation for ten seconds or longer. This represented the operational limit of a normal conducting device,* and it was difficult to maintain a stable plasma state in the fusion device at such a high temperature for a long time. * Limits of a normal conduction device: Unlike KSTAR, a fusion device that features a superconducting magnet, existing fusion devices based on normal conducting magnets such as copper magnets cannot be operated for an extended period of time because when a high electric current runs through the magnet to create a magnetic field that is strong enough to confine plasma, the magnet overheats due to its resistance.   In its 2020 experiment, KSTAR improved the performance of the internal transport barrier (ITB) mode, one of the next-generation plasma operation modes developed in 2019 and succeeded in maintaining the plasma state for a long period of time, overcoming the existing limits of the ultra-high-temperature plasma operation.   Director Si-Woo Yoon of the KSTAR Research Center at the KFE explained, “The technologies required for long operations of 100 million-degree plasma are the key to the realization of fusion energy, and KSTAR’s success in maintaining high-temperature plasma for 20 seconds will be an important turning point in the race for securing the necessary technologies for long high-performance plasma operation, a critical component of a commercial nuclear fusion reactor in the future.”   “The success of the KSTAR experiment in the long high-temperature operation by overcoming certain drawbacks of the ITB modes brings us a step closer to the development of technologies leading to the realization of nuclear fusion energy,” added Yong-Su Na, a professor in the Department of Nuclear Engineering at SNU, who has been jointly conducting research on the KSTAR plasma operation.   KSTAR is going to share its key experiment outcomes in 2020, including this success, with fusion researchers around the world at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference to be held in May of 2021.  The final goal of KSTAR is to succeed in continuous operation of 300 seconds with an ion temperature higher than 100 million degrees by 2025.
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KFE’s Institute of Plasma Technology has paved the way for a paradigm shift in the storage and distribution of agricultural produce with their “Plasma-Technology-Based Smart Storage System.”   |Plasma storage system changes the storing function of humidity and temperature Organic Onion Regular Onion The “Plasma-Technology-Based Smart Storage System” has recorded excellent scores in germ and mycete tests prior to its deployment at farms. The picture on the left is of organic onions, while that on the right show regular onions. In each picture, only the onions on the left had plasma technology applied while stored for a month.  “Agriculture and ICT met to evolve into smart farms. Likewise, the crops grown on smart farms will meet with a smart storage system to accelerate agricultural innovation,” explained Dr. Seong-Bong Kim, the Director of the Division of Plasma-Bio Convergence. Plasma technology, which has already made substantial contributions to state-of-the-art industries such as the semi-conductor and medical industries, can change the paradigm of produce storage as well. The plasma storage system is a smart storage system that integrates three key elemental technologies (micro-organism sterilization, aging suppression, and respiration suppression) and the storage environment factors of the temperature and humidity for proper control. It is an eco-friendly technology to hinder the respiration and aging of farm products and to sterilize micro-organisms by plasma technology without the use of chemicals.    Existing low-temperature storage applications focus on minimizing the respiration of produce by lowering the temperature, as animals in hibernation do so as to sustain life. However, the typical temperature of a low-temperature storehouse was around 5℃, which caused cold damage to the stored products. During sizzling summers, electricity bills were another burden, with some storehouses even shutting down due to the high bills resulting from high electricity demand during heat wave periods.   “Until recently, key factors at a low-temperature storehouse were to control the temperature and humidity. However, controlling only these two factors led to limits with regard to the ability to restrict decomposition by micro-organisms, aging and respiration, as there are fungi and germs propagating even at low temperatures. Also, ethylene is not removed,” said Director Kim.   Hence, plasma storage systems are attracting more attention given their ability to control factors such as aging and respiration. The repression of aging and respiration is an original technology novel to existing storage systems. Being the most intricate technique, plasma catalyst hybrid technology was completed to adsorb ethylene selectively, which is the main substance causing the maturation of produce, and to remove it by means of plasma. In addition, a smart automatic control system was developed to enable customized, independent module control depending on the crop by modulizing each function of sterilization, aging suppression and respiration suppression.   |Aiming at operation recipe development based on demonstration data   “Korean fruits and vegetables are renowned overseas for their taste and quality. As the best condition differs from each product, we are planning to complete the optimal storage recipes which even take each product’s distribution stages into account through ceaseless demonstrations.” Director Kim expects that the completion of recipes tailored for each type of produce will ensure competitive quality for both domestic and export markets.   In addition, another dream of creating a new agricultural distribution system is being realized by transferring related technologies to local companies. The performance has already been proved for the plasma storage system with demonstration tests that began in 2019. Commercialization is planned to begin in earnest from 2021, when additional demonstrations and module, equipment and system tests are to be completed.   The MoU concluded on the 17th of July of 2020 among the Institute of Plasma Technology, and Jeollabuk-do Wanju-gun, and Jeonbuk Technopark was a milestone in relation to this plan. With the MoU, the three institutions will start joint research on plasma technology support and solutions, demonstrate and run a plasma-smart storage system in Wanju-gun, and cooperate closely in various fields such as smart agriculture policies and the organization of new projects. The Institute of Plasma Technology will extend trial projects nationwide based on Wanju-gun’s example after finishing the demonstrations.  The four plasma technology-based smart storage system testbeds located at the Institute of Plasma Technology, Gunsan
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The KFE vision for core technology research and development for a nuclear fusion demonstration was shared.                   From the left, Professor Seung Jeong Noh(KFITA), Chief Commissioner Jeong-Won Lee (KFE Incorporation Commission), Dr. Gyung-Su Lee(Former president of NFRI), Congressman Sang-Min Lee, First Vice Minister Byung-Seon Jeong(MIST), President Suk Jae Yoo(KFE), Congressman Seung-Rae Jo, Congressman Yeung-Shik Kim, Acting Chairperson Sun-Hwa Hahn (NST), President Hyung-Shik Shin (KBSI)   KFE held a commencement ceremony on the 27th of December of 2020 to celebrate its new beginning as an independent research institution.   KFE began its research in January of 1996 as a project division of KBSI. After 20 years, in October of 2005, it was established as an affiliated research institute of KBSI, referred to as NFRI. Given the increasing need for a fusion-specialized research institution, an act in the Korean National Assembly was passed in April of 2020 to promote NFRI to KFE. Accordingly, KFE commenced as an independent institution on the 20th of November of 2020.    During the opening ceremony, only President Suk Jae Yoo and invited speakers attended in person according to the COVID19 quarantine policy. Attendants were the First Vice Minister Byung-Seon Jeong from MSIT; Congressman Sang-Min Lee of the Daejeon Yuseong District; Congressman Seung-Rae Jo and Congressman Yeung-Shik Kim from the Science, ICT, Broadcasting, and Communications Committee of the National Assembly; Acting Chairperson Sun-Hwa Hahn from the National Research Council of Science & Technology; Chief Commissioner Jeong-Won Lee of the KFE Incorporation Commission; President Hyung-Shik Shin of KBSI; Dr. Gyung-Su Lee who was the former president of NFRI; and Commissioner Seung Jeong Noh of KFITA. Others including KFE employees celebrated the opening through a YouTube live broadcast.    President Yoo commented through his opening speech, “We should be fully prepared for the vocation, for which what we do is not just mere research and development but will solve the energy problems of the future for good.” He also revealed the institutional vision “to shift the research focus from fundamental studies to core technologies for fusion energy demonstrations as well as to achieve innovations making use of the fourth industrial revolution to lay the foundation for a virtual fusion reactor.”   Vice Minister Jeong of MSIT added, “The hope of commercializing fusion energy was shown in a series of events from the completion of KSTAR in 2007 to the success of 2020 of the 20s operation at 100 million ℃. Twenty-five years have passed with the devotion of every scientist at KFE. Still, commercializing fusion energy to be delivered to us will take approximately another 35 years. There remains a path for us to go with a broader, further and longer perspective. Many say the carbon neutrality is achievable within the year 2050 if we realize our fusion plans. I would like to ask KFE to succeed in the demonstration so that fusion is more than just a possibility and will be the obvious alternative and to make an effort to communicate and unite with others despite beginning as an independent research institute.”
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The 8th Korea-China JCM and the 16th Korea-Japan JCM were held via video conferences due to COVID19, respectively, on the 7th-8th of December and on the 10th-11th of December. Government officials and renowned scholars gathered to discuss national policies related to fusion R&D and collaborations using KSTAR and devices in each country as well as collaborations for ITER. In particular, at the KO-CN JCM, progress toward the HHLT ISO standard was shared, while the KO-JP JCM members discussed the impact of both countries’ de-carbonization policies on fusion R&D directions. Through the two JCMs, Korea recognized the importance of cooperation in area of fusion with China and Japan and agreed to implement remote collaborations proactively in 2021. With the end of the COVID-19 pandemic, the KO-CN JCM of 2021 will be held in China, while the KO-JP JCM will be held in Korea.
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 - ITER Korea DA succeeded to manufacture the first product of a blank shield block The first product of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) "Blanket Shield Block" has been successfully manufactured in Korea. It is designed to protect nuclear fusion reactor devices from plasma whose neutrons and more than 100 million °C temperature can damage the parts. "The ITER Blanket Shield Block is a primary barrier to protect the ITER devices from plasma’s neutron damages and enormous energy set from ultra-high temperature over 100 million °C. Like a blanket, it protects all the main components such as vacuum vessel, magnet and so on" said Sa-Woong Kim, the team leader. In other words, it is the part to shield major ITER devices from plasma and neutrons from nuclear fusion, and is to be installed in puzzle-like connections, surrounding the inner wall of the vacuum vessel. Total 440 blanket shield blocks are going to be installed at ITER, procured by South Korea and China each to supply 220 units. This achievement is remarkable in that the team has successfully resolved technical issues which they have encountered in every stage, including design, manufacture and testing. They have successfully met the high standards required by ITER and have established mass production system for the blanket shield blocks. First product of ITER blanket shield block ITER Korea Project Blanket Technology Team members including Byung-Il Park(senior engineer), Sikun Chung (senior engineer), Hee-Jin Shim(principal researcher), Sa-Woong Kim(principal researcher, team leader), starting from left Mission 1. Finding the best material and design: Stainless Steel ITER put forward strict standards in selecting and manage the block materials. This was the first to meet for the production of blanket shield blocks. "Good quality is essential for shielding from neutrons and for cooling plasma. It must be a low-radiation material with a short half-life when exposed to neutrons. On top of that, drilling and welding must be made possible to serve as a part to prevent plasma heat," commented Hee-Jin Shim, the principal researcher of the team. Accordingly, the researchers first of all worked on developing a special stainless steel (i.e. 316L(N)-IG) for the blanket shield block to withstand extreme environments, which succeeded in satisfying all the strict criteria of ITER. Next, the design was completed in such a complex form considering, on the one hand, the shape of plasma inside, and on the other hand, all coils and pipes outside to tightly adjoin vacuum vessel. "We had to wait till finishing the design of ITER vacuum vessel to start designing blanket shield blocks in earnest. This is because we had to consider the blanket shield blocks’ location which is internally adjacent to plasma and externally to the vacuum vessel. The shape of blanket shield blocks was decided based on ITER’s idea of the most stable plasma form and by the location of coils and pipes inside the vacuum vessel,” said Dr. Kim. Mission 2. Carving ‘Stainless Steel 316L(N)-IG’ as elaborately as if it were made of clay In the production stage, a technique to delicately process difficult-to-machining materials of large size was developed to enable complicated shapes. "First of all, we introduced a precision drilling equipment to make a path of cooling water into the stainless steel 316L(N)-IG which weighed around 5 to 6 tons. And the cover plate was welded precisely by welding craftsmen. Then, we finished machining the external into complicated shapes by a large precision-machining-device which can move both horizontally, vertically and tilting as well" said Sikun Chung, a senior engineer of the team. It was a challenge of carving very huge, sturdy surface with a very fine knife. Drilling was another challenge to create a path for coolant. One shield block, whose size is 1m in height, 1.4m in width and 0.4m in thickness, requires as many as 220 drillings to create coolant passage. For the smooth flow of coolant, a hole of 1.4m length must be drilled through by one single drilling without mistake. If the way is drilled from both ends of the shield block towards the middle point, even a tiny miss of the point will lead to slow down the water flow on the spot, causing turbulence and drop in cooling performance. Therefore, it must penetrate 1.4 m with one single drilling, not to mention all the 220 coolant paths drilled inside a blanket shield block must meet each other accurately within 1mm tolerance. Senior engineer Byung-Il Park explained the difficulty of drilling as follows: "The 1.4 m should be drilled in one way within a 16-32mm diameter. Stainless chips from drilling may interfere with the way, and the drill may go astray due to the collision of power between the stainless steel and the drilling. We gathered initial mistakes and errors to come up with the best processing method. The ways in and out for coolant were finished by welding approximately 55 pieces of cover plate. Another trial and error was inevitable in welding as well to minimize distortion while welding total 160 meters.” In addition to the initial trials and lessons, the partnership with domestic companies also enabled engineers to find the best processing method. The blanket shield block passed a non-destructive test designed to fully inspect for all welds. By using the world's first developed ultra-high temperature helium leakage test facility, it also proved its performance by completing ITER-like operation test under high-temperature, high-vacuum conditions. Dr. Kim recalled that the various performance tests of the blanket shield block were like a series of endeavors trying to find something invisible. In particular, regarding the high temperature helium leakage test, the lack of both such a device and such experience demanded countries participating in ITER to gather for workshops to find a breakthrough together. It is notable that ITER Korea DA successfully passed the stringent testing standards of ITER for the first time among ITER members, with some of the technologies developed during the tests waiting for their patents to be approved.
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In 1995, South Korea announced it will build a medium size tokamak equipped with full superconducting magnets. Because no one has tried such concept before, it would be the first full superconducting tokamak in the world. 12 years later in 2007, South Korea reported the completion of the tokamak and started to operate the device. The world was excited to witness its first operation. Although they have no previous experiences on tokamak operation, Korean scientists ignited the sparks of plasmas successfully without failure. The temperature of KSTAR’s first plasma was 2 million °C and the duration was 248 milliseconds. In 2019, after 12 years of operation, KSTAR achieved the driving record of 100 million °C plasma for eight consecutive seconds. The plasma temperature is 50 times higher and driving time is 30 times stronger. To counter much stronger plasma operation, KFE plans to upgrade the plasma-facing materials inside of KSTAR from carbon to tungsten. KSTAR has been using a high-purity carbon tile attached to the inside of the vacuum vessel to protect the device from events of sudden collapse of the high temperature plasma and from very high heat flux at the divertor. During the plasma operation, the temperature tiles rises to more than 1000°C due to plasma radiation and particle flux. Carbon tiles are frequently used in tokamaks due to their superior thermal properties and costs. Carbon is a low Z material which brings another advantage as a radiator that reduces the particle flux onto the wall. However, carbon is chemically very active species with hydrogen forming hydrocarbon molecules such as methane (CD4) when plasma particles bombard the surface of carbon tiles. Methane formation in a fusion device causes problems because it contains four hydrogen per carbon atom resulting in the co-deposition of fusion fuel (D or T) as hydrogenated amorphous carbon film on the surface of remote areas inside the fusion device. Furthermore, methane entering into the plasma core degrades the performance of plasma, thus fusion reaction. The situation will be getting worse and worse as the plasma performance dramatically increases. Inside the ‘KSTAR’ vacuum vessel of the superconducting nuclear fusion research device In this context, the fusion communities are paying attention to tungsten as a new first wall material to replace carbon. With atomic number 74, melting point 3,422°C, boiling point 5,930°C, density 19.25g/cm3, tungsten, which means ‘heavy(tung) stone(sten)’ in Swedish, has the best melting point among existing metals. Therefore, it has excellent heat and chemical resistance, and there is little thermal expansion at high temperatures. Mass also reaches about 20g/cm3, which is 10 times heavier than carbon, making plasma-induced erosion very small. Not only the ITER, but also Germany's ASDEX-U and China's EAST are replacing plasma materials with tungsten. KSTAR has launched a project to replace carbon a diverter, which plays a critical role in removing the heat and particle from plasma in the tokamak. Its goal is to complete the installation of new tungsten diverter by July 2022 in order to carry out high-performance plasma experiments and research related to DEMO reactor. The life time of tungsten divertor in DEMO is approximately 2.5 years in which much stronger plasma experiments take place., it can be used without any replacements for two and a half years. The development of tungsten bonding technology is another big challenge. Two different materials, tungsten and copper, have to be bonded in order to sustain erosion by plasma (tungsten) while the heat load on the surface of the tungsten has to be removed by copper with flowing water. Since the properties of the two materials are so different and the thermal expansion rate varies by four times, high-level bonding processes are needed. Since 2012, KFE has promoted tungsten research and developed its own technology for bonding tungsten and copper alloys (CuCrZr).
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 - Research on nuclear fusion simulation leveraging 1PF high-performance supercomputer KAIROS Kraken, NFRI’s first supercomputer, which retired in January this year after 10 years of challenges and achievements The first project chosen by Aurora, the first exaflops-class supercomputer in the U.S., which can calculate 1 quintillion floating point operations per second in 2018, was the Princeton Plasma Physics Research Institute (PPPL)'s artificial intelligence (AI) project for nuclear fusion research. The fact that the world’s top-notch supercomputer is planned for the nuclear fusion study indicates how significant and challenging nuclear fusion research is. Though supercomputers have been globally mobilized, nuclear fusion research is yet to be realized on Earth for commercial purpose. This is because predicting the movement of plasma particles of more than 100 quintillion per unit volume in tokamaks and finding optimal operation conditions with proper control is not an easy task even with supercomputers. This is not the first supercomputer that has been introduced in KFE. NFRI(KFE’s previous name) introduced the 60 teraflop-supercomputer "Kraken" in 2011 to understand and solve challenging issues such as plasma transport and turbulence. Although there have been research achievements in the fusion theory and modeling, including code development, which can interpret and analyze KSTAR plasma experiments, there have been limitations in accommodating the increasing computing resource demand. The fusion plasma, of which temperature exceeds 100 million °C, can be modelled accurately by a five to six-dimensional kinetic model rather than a general hydrodynamic model due to its high temperature and torus-shaped magnetic field geometry. In addition, existing supercomputers are not powerful enough to prepare a 'Virtual DEMO' in which a virtual fusion device may be designed and verified for the development of fusion energy. This is where "KAIROS" would play a significant role in the future. KFE is ready to search for a "best operating condition" with KAIROS, whose calculation capability per second is 25 times larger than the retiring supercomputer Kraken. In August 2020, 'KAIROS', a 1PF high-performance supercomputer, began a full-scale service for Korean fusion research. KAIROS, the name given through a public contest, is an Ancient Greek word meaning the right, critical moment. While chronos, another greek word for time, means natural and continuous passage of time, kairos implies an "opportune moment or time for action". Since 1995, the KSTAR has been developed and upgraded and the research program has progressed continuously. KFE now seeks to take a critical step toward realizing nuclear fusion, by enhancing its soft power with KAIROS. The theoretical performance (Rpeak) of KAIROS is 1.56 petaflops and the real performance (Rmax) measured by HPL benchmark is 1.01 petaflops. It is the largest in Korea among the supercomputers dedicated to a specific research field. KFE plans to use KAIROS to develop and extend simulation codes to fully analyze and predict results of the ITER experiments that will begin operation in 2025. Furthermore, it will be used to develop virtual fusion devices that are geared for efficient and reliable design and verification of K-DEMO. KAIROS aims to strengthen the soft power of the nation's nuclear fusion technologies and will be opened up to domestic fusion research communities including universities and industries, thereby help boost up the domestic nuclear fusion research capabilities.
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 The first president of Korea Institute of Fusion Energy Suk Jae Yoo has been appointed as the first president of Korea Institute of Fusion Energy(KFE) which will launch as an independent research institute. NFRI is to be promoted to KFE as of November 20, 2020, and the opening ceremony is going to be held on November 27 (Friday), participated by the Vice Minister of the Ministry of Science and ICT and key figures both from the industry and the academia. Dr. Yoo received a bachelor's degree and a master's degree in nuclear engineering from Seoul National University. He later earned a doctorate in plasma science from KIT in Germany. He joined NFRI in 1999 as a researcher and has served as Director of the Plasma Technology Research Center, Director of the Applied Technology Development Department and currently as the president. His new term is three years from the 20th of November, the establishment date of KFE. “In the new Korea Institute of Fusion Energy, we will shift our focus from basic research, which we have been conducting as a part of Korea Basic Science Institute, to core technology development crucial for commercializing nuclear fusion energy," said Dr. Yoo. He also added, "We will also reformulate goals and visions of the institution and prepare for a R&D framework to develop core technologies to build K-DEMO.” Within three months from taking the office, he will propose a research plan that further details the institution’s goals.
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Hyeon Park (Former) Professor at UNIST Physics Department (Former) Head of KSTAR Center (Present) Senior Adviser to KFE “I wanted to accurately capture the plasma to understand the physics therein.” - This has been a lifelong commitment of Dr. Hyeon Park, a world-renowned nuclear fusion scholar. On September 10, the Plasma Division of the Association of Asia Pacific Physical Societies (AAPPS) announced Dr. Park, former head of the KSTAR Research Center and current KFE senior advisor, as the winner of the S. Chandrasekhar Prize. The S. Chandrasekhar Prize is considered one of the top three academic awards in the field of Plasma Physics, along with the James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society (APS) and the Hannes Alfvén Prize of the European Physical Society. Secondary imaging observation has become an integral part of nuclear fusion plasma physics research Working at PPPL, in 2002, Dr. Park succeeded in developing high-speed 2-D microwave imaging cameras with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy. This could show the movements of electrons inside plasma and, therefore, the 2-D imaging of fluctuating temperatures and densities of electrons within plasma, which allowed everyone to observe the same phenomenon objectively. He moved to POSTECH in late 2007 when Korea's nuclear fusion research was about to begin in earnest. At that time, Korea was ambitiously trying to launch nuclear fusion research by building KSTAR. The imaging device developed by him enabled KSTAR, the world's first superconducting tokamak, to outperform as well as the matchless diagnostics. "KSTAR's superb performance enabled symmetrical, high-performance plasma operation. This provided me with a chance to establish what I had been working on with great interests. I was able to sort out the controversies existing on the sawtooth crash process.” The identification of sawtooth crash process in the core of plasma is one of his representative achievements in the field. Sawtooth crash process was first discovered in 1974, and no consensus had been reached among researchers for almost forty years, until Dr. Park and his team at KSTAR conducted a series of experiments in accuracy to find the answer. "Previously researchers viewed plasma as cylinder-shaped, but KSTAR’s imaging showed that plasma was not always shaped like a cylinder. In other words, the existing theory was half right, half wrong. It is not easy for a theoretical researcher to admit that his argument is wrong, but the images and videos provided a firm, objective ground for anyone to agree upon." KSTAR is considered to be the most sophisticated and symmetrical superconducting tokamak in existence. Experiment results, conducted on this excellent device and supported by objective image data, have fueled new theories and modellings, which also allowed for KSTAR to develop and carry out world-class plasma researches. KSTAR's imaging device began 2-D measurements in 2008 and since has added 3-D imaging features to observe within all areas of KSTAR the process where magnetic fluid phenomena develop and collapse in both 2-D and 3-D simultaneously.

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